Seksuell trakassering og overgrep predikerer søvnforstyrrelser og delvis mareritt blant universitetsstudenter i Norge

Forskere fra Universitetet i Bergen, Folkehelseinstituttet, University of California-Berkeley, Stavanger universitetssykehus og NTNU har i denne studien undersøkt i hvilken grad seksuell trakassering og overgrep er knyttet til søvnforstyrrelser blant universitetsstudenter. I studien som inkluderte 49 051 studenter i Norge (69,2% kvinner) undersøkte forskerne blant annet om forskjellige former for seksuell trakassering (uønskede seksuelle kommentarer, utseende eller bevegelser, fotografier, usømmelig eksponering og fysisk trakassering) og seksuelle overgrep (forsøk på, eller fullført voldtekt), kunne føre til insomni (ifølge diagnosekriteriene fra DSM-5) eller endret søvnlengde. Ved gjentatt trakassering økte sannsynligheten for insomni og redusert søvnlengde hos begge kjønn. For begge kjønn var alle former for trakassering med unntak av "usømmelig eksponering" og "uønskede seksuelle bilder" for menn negativt forbundet med søvnlengde, og de sterkeste assosiasjonene ble funnet for "fullført voldtekt" og "forsøk på voldtekt".  For begge kjønn økte sannsynligheten for insomni ved gjentagende seksuell trakassering.

Sexual harassment and assault predict sleep disturbances and is partly mediated by nightmares: Findings from a national survey of all university students in Norway

Iris M Steine, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Mari Hysing, Lidia Puigvert, Viktor Schønning, Børge Sivertsen

Studien er publisert i Journal of Sleep Research

Sexual harassment and assault is common in most domains of society, and has been linked to several adverse outcomes, including reduced sleep quality. However, less is known about the possible impact of sexual harassment and assault on various sleep problems among university students. In a sample of 49,051 students in Norway (69.2% women), we examined i) the associations of varying extents of sexual harassment (unwanted sexual comments, looks or gestures, photographs, indecent exposure, and physical harassment) and sexual assault (attempted or completed rape), with meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria of insomnia and with sleep duration, ii) the association of cumulative exposure to sexual harassment/assault with insomnia and sleep duration, and iii) to what extent nightmares could explain the association between sexual harassment and insomnia and sleep duration. For both genders, all forms of harassments with the exception of "indecent exposure" and "unwanted sexual photographs" for men were negatively associated with sleep duration, with the strongest associations being found for "rape" and "attempted rape". For both genders, the odds of insomnia increased as a function of cumulative harassment exposure. Similarly, a graded, negative association was found between cumulative harassment and sleep duration for both genders. Mediation analyses showed that 28% of the observed association between cumulative harassment and insomnia, and 15% of the association between cumulative harassment and sleep duration, was mediated by frequency of nightmares.