Berit Hjelde Hansen
, Hilde Norsted Andresen, Jonas Gjesvik, Per M Thorsby, Terje Nærland, Stine Knudsen-Heier.
Studien er publisert i Sleep Medicine.
Objective/background: Psychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits add significantly to impairment in academic achievement and quality of life in patients with narcolepsy. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and executive dysfunctions, secondly to explore the association between psychiatric comorbidity, executive dysfunctions, subjective and objective sleep measures, and severity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 deficiency in pediatric narcolepsy type 1 (PNT1).
Patients/methods: Cross-sectional study of 59 consecutively included PNT1 patients (age: 6-20 years; 34:25 girls: boys; 54/59 H1N1 (Pandemrix®)-vaccinated). Core narcolepsy symptoms including subjective sleepiness, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test results, CSF hypocretin-1 levels, psychiatric disorders (by semistructured diagnostic interview Kaufmann Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime version (KSADS)), and executive dysfunction (by Behavior Rating of Executive Function (BRIEF)) were assessed.
Results: 52.5% of the patients had one or more psychiatric comorbid disorder, and 64.7% had executive dysfunction in a clinically relevant range, with no sex difference in prevalence, while older age was associated with poorer executive function (p=0.013). Having any psychiatric comorbid disorder was associated with poorer executive functions (p=0.001). CSF hypocretin-1 deficiency severity was significantly associated with presence of psychiatric comorbidity (p=0.022) and poorer executive functions (p=0.030), and poorer executive functions was associated with subjective sleepiness (p=0.009).
Conclusions: The high occurrence of, and association between, psychiatric comorbidity and executive dysfunction underlines the importance of close attention to both these comorbidities in clinical care of NT1.