Prenatal and Neonatal Factors Predicting Sleep Problems in Children Born Extremely Preterm or With Extremely Low Birthweight
Kristine M. Stangenes, Mari Hysing, Silje K. Fevang, Irene B. Elgen, Thomas Halvorsen, Trond Markestad og Bjørn Bjorvatn
Prematurely born children have been reported to have more sleep problems
throughout childhood than children born at term. The aim of this study was to
explore if prenatal or neonatal factors can predict sleep problems at age 11
years in children born extremely preterm (EPT).
Method: A prospective
observational study of all infants who were born EPT in Norway in 1999 and
2000. Prenatal and neonatal data were collected by all Norwegian obstetric and
pediatric departments. Parental questionnaire mapped sleep problems and sleep
habits at the age of 11 years.
Results: Of the 372
eligible children, 221 participated. Of those, 28.1% snored, 27.5% had
difficulty falling asleep or frequent awakenings and 17.2% suffered from
daytime sleepiness. The mean sleep duration was 9.4 h (range 4.3–11.0 h).
Smoking in pregnancy predicted snoring (odds ratio 4.3). Neonatal cerebral
hemorrhage and being born small for gestational age predicted difficulty
falling asleep or frequent awakenings (odds ratio 2.2 and 2.3). Other
morbidities during pregnancy or the newborn period, gestational age or the
burden of treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit did not predict sleep
problems. None of the studied prenatal or neonatal factors predicted daytime
sleepiness or sleep duration <9 h.
Of numerous prenatal and neonatal factors, only smoking during pregnancy, being
born small for gestational age and cerebral hemorrhage predicted sleep problems
at 11 years of age among these children born EPT.