Økt alvorlighetsgrad av obstruktiv søvnapné er assosiert med mindre angst og depresjon

Forskere ved Universitetet i Bergen har gjennomført en studie der hensikten var å undersøke om det var sammenheng mellom angst og depresjon og alvorlighetsgraden av obstruktiv søvnapné (OSA) hos pasienter som ble henvist med mistanke om OSA.

3770 pasienter med gjennomsnittalder 49 år ble inkludert, og 70 % av utvalget var menn. Pasientene ble diagnostisert med polygrafisk søvnmåling, og svarte på et spørreskjema om angst og depresjonssymptomer (HADS), samt om de var under behandling for psykiske lidelser, eller om de tidligere var behandlet for depresjon.

Resultatene viste at 35,1% hadde en apnea-hypopnea-indeks (AHI) <5 (ikke OSA), 31,9% hadde AHI mellom 5 og 14,9 (mild OSA), 17,3% hadde AHI mellom 15 og29,9 (moderat OSA), og 15,7% hadde AHI ≥ 30 (alvorlig OSA).  Studien viste at forekomst av angst og depressive symptomer var signifikant lavere med økt alvorlighetsgrad av OSA, også når det ble justert for kjønn, alder, røyking, alkoholforbruk og fedme.

Increased severity of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with less anxiety and depression

Studien er publisert i Journal of Sleep Research

Bjørn Bjorvatn, Narvini Rajakulendren, Sverre Lehmann, Ståle Pallesen

The objective was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in relation to the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among patients referred with suspicion of OSA.

The sample comprised 3770 consecutive patients with a mean age of 49.1 years; 69.7% were male. OSA was diagnosed and categorized based on a standard respiratory polygraphic sleep study using a type 3 portable monitor. Patients completed the validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) prior to the sleep study. In addition, they answered questions about whether they were currently in treatment for mental disorders and whether they had been diagnosed previously with depression. We adjusted for sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity in the logistic regression analyses. In total, 35.1% had apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) < 5 (no OSA), 31.9% had AHI: 5-14.9 (mild OSA), 17.3% had AHI: 15-29.9 (moderate OSA) and 15.7% had AHI ≥ 30 (severe OSA).

The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were significantly lower with increased OSA severity, and also when adjusting for sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity (AHI ≥ 15 as dependent variable). Similarly, currently being in treatment for mental disorders and being diagnosed previously with depression were both associated negatively with OSA severity, with only the latter remaining significant in the fully adjusted model. Furthermore, multiple linear regressions showed that HADS anxiety and depression total scores were associated negatively with AHI. In conclusion, symptoms of anxiety and depression were associated negatively with OSA severity in these referred patients. The findings remained significant also after adjusting for several relevant confounders