High prevalence of ADHD symptoms in unmedicated youths with post-H1N1 narcolepsy type 1
Berit Hjelde Hansen, Hilde T Juvodden, Sebjørg Hesla Nordstrand, Rannveig Viste, Per M Thorsby, David Swanson, Kristian B Nilsen, Terje Nærland, Stine Knudsen-Heier
Studien er publisert i Sleep Medicine.
Objectives: To characterize attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in unmedicated post-H1N1 narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) youths, and explore associations between ADHD symptoms and the narcolepsy phenotype.
Methods: A total of 50 consecutively enrolled post-H1N1 NT1 youths (7-20 years, 62% females, 98% HLA-DQB1∗06:02-positive, 98% CSF hypocretin-1 deficient, 88% vaccinated) were assessed after two weeks off medication for ADHD (ADHD diagnosis pre/post-narcolepsy, parent-rated ADHD symptoms) and narcolepsy-phenotyped (semi-structured interview, Stanford Sleep Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, polysomnography (PSG), Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)).
Results: In sum, 26 (52%) and 15 (30%) of participants had ADHD symptoms above and below the clinical significant cut-off, respectively, while 9 (18%) had no ADHD symptoms. High values were found for ADHD total score (mean (SD), 17.9 (9.5)) and ADHD subscores (inattentive score, 11.0 (6.3); hyperactive/impulsivity score, 6.9 (4.7)). These were significantly higher than previously reported in a mainly medicated narcolepsy cohort (p < 0.0001). Age, gender and disease duration did not influence scores. Two participants (4%) had ADHD diagnosis prior to narcolepsy onset. ADHD symptoms were correlated with parent-rated, but not with patient rated ESS scores, objective sleepiness (mean sleep latency), sleep fragmentation (sleep stage shift index, awakening index), or CSF hypocretin-1 level.
Conclusion: Comorbid ADHD symptoms were more prevalent in unmedicated post-H1N1 NT1 youths than previously reported in mainly medicated pediatric narcolepsy cohorts. The high prevalence was not due to pre-existing ADHD and generally not correlated with core narcolepsy sleep/wake phenotype characteristics, indicating that the ADHD symptoms were not a direct consequence of disturbed sleep or daytime sleepiness.