Studien er publisert i European journal of public health
The social gradient of sleep in adolescence: results from the youth@hordaland survey
Mari Hysing, Keith J Petrie, Tormod Bøe, Tea Lallukka, Børge Sivertsen
BACKGROUND: A social gradient of sleep problems has been demonstrated in both children and adults, but our knowledge about possible social determinants of adolescent sleep problems remains limited.
METHODS: A large population-based study in Norway surveyed 10 220 adolescents aged 16-19 years in 2012. Multiple socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and assessment of sleep, including DSM-5 insomnia, sleep duration, weekend-weekdays differences, as well as sleep deficit and delayed sleep phase were included.
RESULTS: Insomnia was more frequent among adolescents from families with lower parental education, parents outside the workforce and among adolescents reporting lower perceived family financial circumstances. Adolescents from lower social strata reported a significantly shorter sleep duration, more sleep deficits, later bedtimes and larger weekday-weekend sleep differences. The associations were present across all SES measures. For example, the mean sleep duration was 6:03 (95% CI: 5:55-6:12) among adolescents with mothers with primary school education, compared with sleep duration of 6:24 (95% CI: 6:20-6:27) and 6:35 (95% CI: 6:31-6:38) among adolescent with mothers having a secondary school and university degree, respectively (P < 0.001). The highest rate of insomnia was found in families with worse perceived financial circumstances (32%), when compared with 17-18% in families with better perceived financial circumstances. Depressive symptoms and family cohesion could account for some, but not all of the association.
CONCLUSIONS: Lower SES was a robust determinant of adolescent sleep patterns and sleep problems, corroborating evidence of a social gradient in sleep from young children and adults. Targeted intervention for adolescents in low SES may be indicated to improve sleep.