Self-reported seasonality is strongly associated with chronotype and weakly associated with latitude
Bjørn Bjorvatn, Ingvild W Saxvig, Siri Waage, Ståle Pallesen
Artikkelen er publisert i Chronobiology International
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported seasonality, i.e., seasonal variations in mood and related behavior, and chronotype, and between self-reported seasonality and home address' latitude. Data were collected from an online questionnaire with 45,338 participants. Seasonality and chronotype were measured with the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the Composite Scale of Morningness, respectively. The participants were categorized into extreme morning types, moderate morning types, intermediate types, moderate evening types, and extreme evening types. Furthermore, participants were categorized depending on home address' latitude. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, marital status, level of education, and children living at home. Results showed that high seasonality (GSS 11+) was found in 20.9%. The prevalence dose-dependency ranged from 12.2% in extreme morning types to 42.6% in extreme evening types (adjusted OR = 4.21, CI = 3.27-5.41). The prevalence was higher in participants living in North-Norway (latitude from 65 to 71⁰N) versus South-Norway (latitude from 58 to 65⁰N) (23.8% versus 20.7%; adjusted OR = 1.18, CI = 1.08-1.28). When comparing the northernmost (69-71⁰N) to the southernmost (58-59⁰N) counties of Norway, the association was stronger (24.9% versus 18.7%; adjusted OR = 1.37, CI = 1.20-1.56). Among the adjusting variables, high seasonality was associated with female sex, younger age, being unmarried, low level of education, and not having children living at home. In conclusion, about one in five Norwegians reported high seasonality. High seasonality was strongly associated with late chronotype (being an evening type) and weakly associated with living in the north (high latitude).