Publikasjoner/Publications from the Bergen Hyperbaric and Diving Research group.

Dykkemedisinsk forskning har pågått i Bergen siden tidlig på 1980-tallet ved Haukeland universitetssykehus, Universitetet i Bergen, NUTEC/NUI og Sjøforsvaret. Nedenfor er en del utvalgte referanser fra denne forskningen relatert til hyperbar oksygenbehandling og helseeffekter av dykking.


Irgens Å: Registerstudie – Yrkesdykkernes barn – kjønnsratio og forekomst av misdannelser. Yrkesdykkere er linket til Medisinsk fødselsregister.​ Irgens Å, Grønning M, Irgens LM. Pregnancy outcome in partners of male professional divers in Norway.Occup Med (Lond). 2016 Jul 13.

Diving exposure and health effects in divers working in different areas of professional diving. Irgens Å, Troland K, Djurhuus R, Grønning M.Int Marit Health. 2016;67(4):235-242. doi: 10.5603/IMH.2016.0042.


Irgens Å: Registerstudie – Pionerdykkere som dykket i Nordsjøen før 1990 er linket til Dødsårsaksregisteret. Irgens Å, Djurhuus R, Grønning M.Mortality among retired offshore divers in Norway. Int Marit Health. 2015;66(2):93-6. doi: 10.5603/IMH.

Irgens Å, Djurhuus R, Grønning M. Mortality among retired offshore divers in Norway.Int Marit Health. 2015; 66: 93-6. doi: 10.5603/IMH.2015.0022. (

Hope A, Stuhr LB, Pavlin T, Bjørkum AA, Grønning M.MRI of the central nervous system in rats following heliox saturation decompression. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2015; 42: 57-64.


Irgens Å, Troland K, Grønning M. Norwegian diver 2011: female professional divers – who are they and what do they do? Caisson.2014;3:51. (Abstract EUBS 2014)

Djurhuus R, A scientific approach for proposing chemical exposure limits in saturation divers. Caisson.2014;3:57. (Abstract EUBS 2014)


Irgens A, Grønning M Cancer risk among professional inshore divers in Norway. Int Marit Health. 2013;64(4):202-6.

Irgens Å, Troland K, Thorsen E, Grønning M. Mortality among professional divers in Norway. Occup Med (Lond). 2013 Dec;63(8):537-43.  
Sundal E, Irgens Å, Troland K, Thorsen E, Grønning M. Prevalence and causes of loss of consciousness in former North Sea occupational divers. Int Marit Health. 2013;64(3):142-7. 
Caspersen C, Stensrud T, Storebø M, Thorsen E.Exhaled nitric oxide and lung function after moderate normobaric hyperoxic exposure.Undersea Hyperb Med. 2013 Jan-Feb;40(1):7-13. 
Caspersen C, Stang J, Thorsen E, Stensrud T. Exhaled nitric oxide concentration upon acute exposure to moderate altitude. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Mar;23(2):e102-7.



Thorsen E, Caspersen C, Stensrud T. Application of exhaled nitric oxide in pulmonary oxygen toxicity. Correspondence. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83: 531-532.



Caspersen C, Stensrud T, Thorsen E.Bronchial nitric oxide flux and alveolar nitric oxide concentration after exposure to hyperoxia. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2011 Oct;82(10):946-50. 
Budal OH, Risberg J, Troland K, Moen G, Nordahl SH, Vaagboe G, Grønning M. Pneumocephalus, a rare complication of diving.Undersea Hyperb Med. 2011 Jan-Feb;38(1):73-9.
Evanger K, Vaagbø G, Thorsen E, Haugen OH.Phakic and Pseudophakic Eyes in Patients During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Mar. 
Goplen FK, Aasen T, Grønning M, Molvær OI, Nordahl SH.Hearing loss in divers: a 6-year prospective study.Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2011 Jan 19. 
Grønning M, Aarli JA.Neurological effects of deep diving.J Neurol Sci. 2011 May 15;304(1-2):17-21. Epub 2011 Mar 4.
Sundal E, Grønning M, Troland K, Irgens A, Aanderud L, Thorsen E. Risk of misclassification of decompression sickness.Int Marit Health. 2011;63(1):17-9.


Evanger K, Vaagbø G, Thorsen E, Haugen OH.Phakic and Pseudophakic Eyes in Patients During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.Optom Vis Sci. 2011 Mar 
Moen G, Specht K, Taxt T, Sundal E, Grøning M, Thorsen E, Troland K, Irgens A, Grüner R. Cerebral diffusion and perfusion deficits in North Sea divers.Acta Radiol. 2010 Nov;51(9):1050-8.
Svalestad J, Hellem S, Vaagbø G, Irgens A, Thorsen E.Reproducibility of transcutaneous oximetry and laser Doppler flowmetry in facial skin and gingival tissue. Microvasc Res. 2010 Jan;79(1):29-33. Epub 2009 Oct 23.
Thorsen E, Grønning M, Troland K.Diving and intrapulmonary shunting of venous gas microemboli.J Clin Ultrasound. 2010 Nov-Dec;38(9):497; author reply 498. No abstract available.


Goplen FK, Grønning M, Aasen T, Nordahl SH.Vestibular effects of diving - a 6-year prospective study.Occup Med (Lond). 2010 Jan;60(1):43-8. Epub 2009 Oct 23.


Skogland S, Stuhr LB, Sundland H, Olsen RE, Hope A. Venous gas emboli in normal and dehydrated rats following decompression from a saturation dive. Aviat Space Environ Med 2008;79:565-9.

Storebø MI, Hope A, Vaagbø G, Thorsen E. Postexercise reduction in lung diffusion capasity is not attenuated by skin cooling. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2008: 28: 403 – 408.


Goplen FK, Aasen T, Nordahl SHG. Postural control in a simulated saturation dive to 240 msw. Undersea Hyperb Med 2007;34:23-130.

Goplen FK, Grønning M, Irgens Å, Sundal E, Nordahl SHG. Vestibular symptoms and otoneurological findings in divers working offshore before 1999. Undersea Hyperb Med 2007;34(2):123-130.
Irgens Å, Grønning M, Troland K, Sundal E, Nyland H, Thorsen E. Reduced health related quality of life in former North Sea divers is associated with decompression sickness.. Occupational Medicine, 2007;57:349-54.
Taraldsøy T, Bolann BJ, Thorsen E. Reduced nitric oxide concentration in exhaled gas after exposure to hyperbaric hyperoxia. Undersea Hyperb Med 2007;34:321-7.


Djurhuus R, Segadal K, Svardal AM. Gluthation in blood cells decreases without DNA breaks after a simulated saturation dive to 250 msw. Aviat Space Environ Med 2006;77:597-604.

Evanger K, Haugen OH, Aanderud L, Thorsen E, Pierscionek BK. Hypermetropia-succeeded myopia after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Optom Vis Sci 2006; 83:195-8.
Thorsen E, Sandsmark H, Ulltang E. Post-exercise reduction in diffusing capacity of the lung after moderate intensity running and swimming. Undersea Hyperb Med 2006;33:103-8.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Stuhr LEB, Troland K, Grønning M,  Marstein S, Hope A. No changes in lung function after a saturation dive to 2.5 Mpa with intermittent reduction in PO2 during decompression. Eur J Applied Physiol 2006;98:270-5.


Grønning M, Risberg J, Skeidsvoll H, Moen G, Aanderud L, Troland K, Sundal E, Thorsen E. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging in neurological decompression sickness. Undersea Hyperb Med 2005;32:397-402.

Hofsø D, Ulvik RJ, Segadal K, Hope A, Thorsen E. Changes in erytropoietin and haemoglobin concentration in response to saturation diving. Eur J Appl Physiol 2005; 95:191-196.
Hope A, Hjelle J, Aanderud L, Aakvaag A. Time and temperature effects on body fluid loss during dives with the open hot-water suit. Aviat Space Environ Med 2005;76:655-60.
Tetzlaff K, Thorsen E. Breathing at depth: physiologic and clinical aspects of diving while breathing compressed gas. Clin Chest Med 2005;26:355-80.


Evanger K, Haugen OH, Irgens Å, Aanderud L, Thorsen E. Ocular refractive changes in patients receiving hyperbaric oxygen administrered by oronasal mask or hood. Acta Ophtalmol Scand 2004;82:449-53.
Risberg J, Englund M, Aanderud J, Eftedal O, Flook V, Thorsen E. Venous gas embolism in chamber attendants after hyperbaric exposure. Undersea Hyperb Med 2004; 31:417-29.


Nordahl SH, Aasen T, Risberg J, Molvaer OI.Balance testing and Doppler monitoring during hyperbaric exposure.Aviat Space Environ Med. 2003 Apr;74(4):320-5.
Vaernes RJ, Sandal G.Human reactions to deep-water conditions.Lancet. 2003 Dec;362 Suppl:s10-1. No abstract available.


Bjørnstad J, Nyland H, Skeidsvoll H, Aanderud L, Eidsvik S.[Neurologic decompression sickness in sports divers].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Jun 30;122(17):1649-51. Norwegian.
Nordahl S, Aasen T, Risberg J, Owe JO, Molvaer OI.Postural control and venous gas bubble formation during hypobaric exposure.Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002 Mar;73(3):184-90.
Skogstad M, Thorsen E, Haldorsen T, Kjuus H.Lung function over six years among professional divers. Occup Environ Med. 2002 Sep;59(9):629-33.
Stuhr LE, Gjerde EA, Thorsen E, Reed RK.Effects of normobaric hyperoxia on water content in different organs in rats.Acta Physiol Scand. 2002 Sep;176(1):13-6.


Hope A, Aanderud L, Aakvaag A.Dehydration and body fluid-regulating hormones during sweating in warm (38 degrees C) fresh- and seawater immersion.J Appl Physiol. 2001 Oct;91(4):1529-34.
Reed JW, Elliott C, Thorsen E.Increased lung compliance in response to a moderate hyperoxic exposure. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2001 Spring;28(1):19-23.
Thorsen E, Haave H, Hofsø D, Ulvik RJ.Exposure to hyperoxia in diving and hyperbaric medicine--effects on blood cell counts and serum ferritin. Undersea Hyperb Med. 2001 Summer;28(2):57-62.
Thorsen E. [Recreational diving--something wrong happens often].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Sep 20;121(22):2638-9. Norwegian. No abstract available.


Aanderud L, Thorsen E, Brattebø G, Forland M, Kristensen G.[Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for radiation reactions].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Mar 30;120(9):1020-2. Norwegian.
Molvaer OI.Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Jun 30;121(17):2000. Norwegian. No abstract available.
Nordahl SH, Aasen T, Dyrkorn BM, Eidsvik S, Molvaer OI.Static stabilometry and repeated testing in a normal population.Aviat Space Environ Med. 2000 Sep;71(9):889-93.
Risberg J, Brattebø G, Sundal E, Aanderud L.[Cerebral hemorrhage after diving].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Jan 10;120(1):125. Norwegian. No abstract available.
Skogstad M, Thorsen E, Haldorsen T.Lung function over the first 3 years of a professional diving career.Occup Environ Med. 2000 Jun;57(6):390-5.


Djurhuus R, Svardal AM, Thorsen E.Glutathione in the cellular defense of human lung cells exposed to hyperoxia and high pressure.Undersea Hyperb Med. 1999 Summer;26(2):75-85.
Thorsen E, Skogstad M, Reed JW.Subacute effects of inspiratory resistive loading and head-out water immersion on pulmonary function.Undersea Hyperb Med. 1999 Fall;26(3):137-41.


Nordahl SH, Aasen T, Owe JO, Molvaer OI.Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on postural control.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1998 Jun;69(6):590-5.
Thorsen E, Aanderud L, Aasen TB.Effects of a standard hyperbaric oxygen treatment protocol on pulmonary function.Eur Respir J. 1998 Dec;12(6):1442-5.


Brattebø G, Aanderud L, Risberg J, Eidsvik S.[Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Now an established treatment in Norway].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1996 May 30;116(14):1675-8. Review. Norwegian.
Sandal GM, Vaernes R, Bergan T, Warncke M, Ursin H.4.Psychological reactions during polar expeditions and isolation in hyperbaric chambers.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996 Mar;67(3):227-34.
Skogstad M, Thorsen E, Haldorsen T, Melbostad E, Tynes T, Westrum B.Divers' pulmonary function after open-sea bounce dives to 10 and 50 meters.Undersea Hyperb Med. 1996 Jun;23(2):71-5.


Nordahl SH, Aasen T, Molvaer OI.Balance testing in saturation diving.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Nov;66(11):1031-6. 
Thorsen E, Risberg J, Segadal K, Hope A.Effects of venous gas microemboli on pulmonary gas transfer function.Undersea Hyperb Med. 1995 Dec;22(4):347-53.
Thorsen E, Kambestad BK.Persistent small-airways dysfunction after exposure to hyperoxia.J Appl Physiol. 1995 Apr;78(4):1421-4.


Aanderud L, Seland JH, Molvaer OI.[Hyperbaric oxygen therapy].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1994 Sep 10;114(21):2467-8. Norwegian. No abstract available. Rønnestad I, Thorsen E, Segadal K, Hope A.Bronchial response to breathing dry gas at 3.7 MPa ambient pressure. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994;69(1):32-5.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Kambestad BK.Mechanisms of reduced pulmonary function after a saturation dive.Eur Respir J. 1994 Jan;7(1):4-10.


Molvaer OI.[Loss of hearing during diving. A survey of etiology, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1973 Aug 10;93(21):1509-12. Norwegian. No abstract available.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Kambestad BK, Gulsvik A.Pulmonary function one and four years after a deep saturation dive.Scand J Work Environ Health. 1993 Apr;19(2):115-20.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Reed JW, Elliott C, Gulsvik A, Hjelle JO.Contribution of hyperoxia to reduced pulmonary function after deep saturation dives.J Appl Physiol. 1993 Aug;75(2):657-62.
Todnem K, Vaernes R.[Acute and chronic effects of deep diving on the nervous system].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1993 Jan 10;113(1):36-9. Norwegian. 


Thorsen E, Rønnestad I, Segadal K, Hope A.Respiratory effects of warm and dry air at increased ambient pressure.Undersea Biomed Res. 1992 Mar;19(2):73-83.


Molvaer OI, Nyland H.[Should patients with spinal cord damage dive?].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Jun 30;111(17):2058-9. Norwegian. No abstract available. 
Molvaer OI.Vestibular problems in diving and in space.Scand Audiol Suppl. 1991;34:163-70.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Kambestad BK.Characteristics of the response to exercise in professional saturation divers.Undersea Biomed Res. 1991 Mar;18(2):93-101.
Todnem K, Eidsvik S, Hjelle J.[Neurological decompression sickness].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1991 Jun 30;111(17):2091-4. Norwegian. 
Todnem K, Nyland H, Skeidsvoll H, Svihus R, Rinck P, Kambestad BK, Riise T, Aarli JA.Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.Br J Ind Med. 1991 Apr;48(4):258-66.
Todnem K, Skeidsvoll H, Svihus R, Rinck P, Riise T, Kambestad BK, Aarli JA.Electroencephalography, evoked potentials and MRI brain scans in saturation divers. An epidemiological study.Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1991 Oct;79(4):322-9.
Todnem K, Vaernes R, Kambestad BK.Visual evoked and brain stem auditory evoked potentials in divers.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1991 Oct;62(10):982-5.


Benestad HB, Hersleth IB, Hardersen H, Molvaer OI.Functional capacity of neutrophil granulocytes in deep-sea divers.Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1990 Feb;50(1):9-18.
Molvaer OI, Albrektsen G.Hearing deterioration in professional divers: an epidemiologic study.Undersea Biomed Res. 1990 May;17(3):231-46.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Kambestad B, Gulsvik A.Divers' lung function: small airways disease? Br J Ind Med. 1990 Aug;47(8):519-23.
Thorsen E, Segadal K, Myrseth E, Påsche A, Gulsvik A.Pulmonary mechanical function and diffusion capacity after deep saturation dives.Br J Ind Med. 1990 Apr;47(4):242-7.
Todnem K, Nyland H, Kambestad BK, Aarli JA.Influence of occupational diving upon the nervous system: an epidemiological study.Br J Ind Med. 1990 Oct;47(10):708-14.
Todnem K, Nyland H, Riise T, Kambestad BK, Vaernes R, Hjelle JO, Svihus R, Aarli JA.Analysis of neurologic symptoms in deep diving: implications for selection of divers.Undersea Biomed Res. 1990 Mar;17(2):95-107.


Furset K, Aanderud L, Tyssebotn I.Respiratory depression by analgesics at 41 bar.Undersea Biomed Res. 1989 May;16(3):219-26.
Hytten K, Jensen A, Vaernes R.Effects of underwater escape training--a psychophysiological study.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1989 May;60(5):460-4.
Thorsen E, Aanderud L, Aasen TB.Effects of a standard hyperbaric oxygen treatment protocol on pulmonary function.Eur Respir J. 1998 Dec;12(6):1442-5.
Thorsen E, Hjelle J, Segadal K, Gulsvik A.Exercise tolerance and pulmonary gas exchange after deep saturation dives.J Appl Physiol. 1990 May;68(5):1809-14.
Todnem K, Knudsen G, Riise T, Nyland H, Aarli JA.Nerve conduction velocity in man during deep diving to 360 msw.Undersea Biomed Res. 1989 Jan;16(1):31-40.
Todnem K, Knudsen G, Riise T, Nyland H, Aarli JA.The non-linear relationship between nerve conduction velocity and skin temperature.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989 Apr;52(4):497-501.
Todnem K, Nyland H, Dick AP, Lind O, Svihus R, Molvaer OI, Aarli JA.Immediate neurological effects of diving to a depth of 360 metres.Acta Neurol Scand. 1989 Oct;80(4):333-40.
Ursin R, Furset K, Aanderud L.EEG power spectra in rats during compression and during pentobarbital infusion at pressure.Undersea Biomed Res. 1989 Jan;16(1):41-51.
Vaernes RJ, Hammerborg D.Evoked potential and other CNS reactions during a heliox dive to 360 msw.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1989 Jun;60(6):550-7.
Vaernes RJ, Kløve H, Ellertsen B.Neuropsychologic effects of saturation diving.Undersea Biomed Res. 1989 May;16(3):233-51.


Furset K, Aanderud L, Segadal K, Tyssebotn I.Transcutaneous measurement of PCO2 at high ambient pressure (41 bar).Undersea Biomed Res. 1988 Jan;15(1):51-62.
Molvaer OI, Albrektsen G.Alternobaric vertigo in professional divers.Undersea Biomed Res. 1988 Jul;15(4):271-82.
Vaernes RJ, Bergan T, Warncke M.HPNS effects among 18 divers during compression to 360 msw on heliox.Undersea Biomed Res. 1988 Jul;15(4):241-55.
Vaernes RJ, Knudsen G, Påsche A, Eide I, Aakvaag A.Performance under simulated offshore climate conditions.Scand J Psychol. 1988;29(2):111-22. No abstract available.


Aanderud L, Broch OJ.The effect of high pressure on the kinetics of monoamine transmitters in the rat brain.Undersea Biomed Res. 1987 Mar;14(2):85-91.
Molvaer OI, Eidsvik S.Facial baroparesis: a review.Undersea Biomed Res. 1987 May;14(3):277-95. Review.
Vaernes RJ, Aarli JA, Kløve H, Tønjum S.Differential neuropsychological effects of diving to 350 meters.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1987 Feb;58(2):155-65.


Aanderud L, Bakke OM.Tissue distribution of penicillin during constant rate infusion in rats at 71 ATA.Undersea Biomed Res. 1985 Mar;12(1):53-8.
Aanderud L, Onarheim J, Tyssebotn I.Effect of 71 ATA He-O2 on organ blood flow in the rat.J Appl Physiol. 1985 Nov;59(5):1369-75.
Aarli JA, Vaernes R, Brubakk AO, Nyland H, Skeidsvoll H, Tønjum S.Central nervous dysfunction associated with deep-sea diving.Acta Neurol Scand. 1985 Jan;71(1):2-10.
Eidsvik S, Molvaer OI.Facial baroparesis: a report of five cases.Undersea Biomed Res. 1985 Dec;12(4):459-63.
Molvaer OI, Lehmann EH.Hearing acuity in professional divers.Undersea Biomed Res. 1985 Sep;12(3):333-49.
Vaernes R, Hammerborg D, Ellertsen B, Peterson R, Tønjum S.CNS reactions at 51 ATA on trimix and heliox and during decompression.Undersea Biomed Res. 1985 Mar;12(1):25-39.


Vaernes RJ, Owe JO, Myking O.Central nervous reactions to a 6.5-hour altitude exposure at 3048 meters.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1984 Oct;55(10):921-6.


Aanderud L, Bakke OM.Pharmacokinetics of antipyrine, paracetamol, and morphine in rat at 71 ATA.Undersea Biomed Res. 1983 Sep;10(3):193-201.
Aanderud L, Thoner J, Bakke OM.Tissue distribution of thiopental and diazepam in rats at 71 atmospheres pressure.Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 1983 Dec;27(6):433-8.
Vaernes R, Hammerborg D, Ellertsen B, Peterson R, Tønjum S.Central nervous system reactions during heliox and trimix dives to 51 ATA, DEEP E​X 81.Undersea Biomed Res. 1983 Sep;10(3):169-92.


Aanderud L, Ursin R, Larsen M.Effect of high pressure on EEG burst suppression dose of thiopental in rats.Undersea Biomed Res. 1982 Sep;9(3):255-61.
Vaernes R, Bennett PB, Hammerborg D, Ellertsen B, Peterson RE, Tøonjum S.Central nervous system reactions during heliox and trimix dives to 31 ATA.Undersea Biomed Res. 1982 Mar;9(1):1-14.
Vaernes RJ, Darragh A.Endocrine reactions and cognitive performance at 60 metres hyperbaric pressure. Correlations with perceptual defense reactions.Scand J Psychol. 1982;23(3):193-9. No abstract available.
Vaernes RJ, Eidsvik S.Central nervous dysfunctions after near-miss accidents in diving.Aviat Space Environ Med. 1982 Aug;53(8):803-7.


Aanderud L.A system for pharmacological studies in small animals at high pressure.Undersea Biomed Res. 1981 Jun;8(2):69-74.
Molvaer OI, Gjestland T.Hearing damage risk to divers operating noisy tools under water.Scand J Work Environ Health. 1981 Dec;7(4):263-70.


Aanderud L, Olsen H, Aarbakke J, Mørland J.Drug metabolism in suspensions of isolated rat liver cells at high pressure.Biochem Pharmacol. 1979 Mar 15;28(6):945-6. No abstract available.
Molvaer OI, Natrud E.Ear damage due to diving.Acta Otolaryngol Suppl. 1979;360:187-9.


Molvaer OI, Eidsvik S.[Diving and inner ear damage].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1978 Feb 20;98(5):263-5. Norwegian. No abstract available.
Molvaer OI, Natrud E, Eidsvik S.Diving injuries to the inner ear.Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1978 Nov 30;221(4):285-8. No abstract available.​

Fann du det du leita etter?